Research on risk- and prevention in childhood
There are no known Swedish studies on the prediction in childhood of future criminality or deviance targeting solely the effects of  "pathological symbiosis". But this particular problem can perhaps be indicated in studies covering relations between parent and child. Although most of the research dealing with predictions made on the grounds of family circumstances is a mix of prospective/retrospective studies, the ideal prediction is solely prospective (H. Tham 2001:334). The impossible task of individual prediction is difficult to handle in social policy and even more so in social reality. It would, for example, "have been so much easier if the reality of children's road from an exposed childhood to adulthood had been in accordance with the Swdish Social Board's report Children Today" [1] (B. Vinnerjung[2] 2000:69). Child protection is ultimately, and axiomatically based on the belief, or alleged conviction that separating the child from its parents is always in, if not the best, but the better interest of the child. Unfortunately it seems that empirical scrutiny falsifies the notion that foster care reduces developmental risks compared to growing up in an "insufficient" family of origin. According to B. Vinnerjung it also raises doubts about the prognostic abilities of social authorities (1996:315). Although several studies have indicated that family- and behavioral problems during up bringing are related to later criminality, researchers stress that these findings are based not on singular indications but on models including several risk factors (H. Tham 2001:338-339). In a study[3] referred to by H. Tham, 90 % of those at the highest risk did not repeat crimes. Thus background seems to be less important than personal characteristics. Truancy, drug abuse and children on the run are examples of unwanted behavior that, perhaps, should have called for early intervention[4] (ibid 340-341). Unfortunately individual predictions are both positive and negative false. It could then be expected that we are running out of possibilities for more precise predictions on the individual level. Furthermore, individual prediction does not explain crime fluctuation dependent on social groups, countries and historical époques. In conclusion one should not expect that a criminal policy strategy resting on early interventions is a good solution (ibid 354-355).
Supervision and mother's self-confidence have been found as related to crimes against property as well as crimes against persons; mother's affection and father's deviance were related to property crimes although not to personal crimes (J. McCord 1979:229). According to P. Martens, parents who are the least informed about their children?s whereabouts tend to have juveniles with the highest crime rates. The closer the relationship, the better informed the parents seem to be. Thus, the parents? possibility to monitor their juveniles is a function of how closely the parents and the juvenile are emotionally and socially attached[5]. Conversely, the more distant the relationship between the parents and the juveniles, the less informed the parents tend to be.[6] (P. Martens 1992:147). Furthermore, some classic myths about delinquency and deviant behavior are challenged. The relationship between the socio-economic status of the family and the juveniles? participation in crime is weak. Low participation rates also correlates with parents who respond with anger (ibid:141). This latter observation may be valuable when evaluating ?relational problems?, including affected parenting that easily can be misinterpreted as "psychological abuse". Close social and emotional relationship between the juveniles and the parents, i.e. a high degree of attachment, tends to lower participation rate in various types of crimes. On the other hand most studies show that juveniles with a distant relation tend to participate in criminal acts relatively often (P. Martens 1992:141).
The incompatibilities between the discourse of child protection and the social reality of deviance are well exemplified in a study of grown up boys from Stockholm[7]. Although school variables collected in the sociological ? and to some extent also in the socio-psychological part of the study provided the best basis for prediction of future social adjustment, the sociologists[8], however, never reported such predictions. The results clearly reveal that school difficulties are important indicators of the risk of poor social adjustment in adult age. On the other hand the "classical" sociological variable of social grouping seems to have a limited significance. The psychiatric prognosis ? evaluation on condition that no treatment was given in the sequel ? had the strongest correlation with social adjustment in adult age (Sarnecki & Sollenhag 1985:97-98). Interestingly enough a considerable proportion of the individuals who as adults proved to be well adjusted came from the group with a fairly poor, psychological prognosis (ibid 92). In conclusion Sarnecki and Sollenhag states that: "Precisely the correlation between poor adjustment at school and poor social adjustment in adult age is the very strongest in our material" (ibid 106). After 30 years of age prosecutions had been brought against 17 % of the controls, 18 % of the 222 Stockholm boys, 29 % of the criminal boys, and 48 % of the Skċ boys. "It should be noted that the differences in proportion of prosecutions between the various groups are greater as regards prosecutions for serious crimes than for crimes punishable by fine" (Sarnecki & Sollenhag 1985:110-111).
In a study carried out on Swedish school children in the mid 1990?s self reported delinquency was negatively related to the parents? knowing about the youngster?s socialising and whereabouts, doing nice things together with one?s parents and parents being expected to react negatively to truancy. The strongest of these correlations was parental supervision. Immigrant background, parents? socio-economic status, and broken homes, on the other hand, presented a relatively weak correlation with total delinquency (multiple R = 0.15 ? 0.22). The results correspond with Hirschi's social bond theory and indicate that young people with weak social bonds of various kinds, especially to parents tend to be more delinquent than those with strong social bonds to their parents. Despite the differences both in time and place these results are strikingly similar to Hirschi's study in USA in the mid 1960's (J. Ring 1999:199-212).
Social bond and attachment to parents
A strong parental attachment to consistently disciplined children is the practice in child rearing that appears to matter considerably in criminality and deviance (Hirschi, 1995). The relationship between the delinquency of young people and their social situation in the family, school, and peer group domains constitutes the base for T. Hirschi?s social bonding theory. According to the theory the risk for delinquent acts increases as the social bonds tying an individual to mainstream society are weakened. Hirschi studied self-reported delinquency among schoolchildren in the USA in the mid 1960?s. His results support strong attachment between parents and children (1974). According to J. C. Garelli the theory of attachment by John Bowlby redeemed the infants their rights to be seen as healthy humans, and, contrary to what everybody asserted, infants were only interested in socializing from birth onwards:
According to Freud and his followers, the infant faces serious problems trying to make out itself from the other, or others. They assert he feels as though the external world did not exist. Margaret Mahler, the champion of this trend of indiscrimination between self and other, even talks about a ?phase of normal autism and normal symbiosis? which would last for at least a year; that is why her book is entitled "The Psychological Birth of the Human Infant", as though we humans were doomed to go through two distinct births, a biological birth, whereupon we prove to be dependent, hallucinatory, indiscriminate, autistic, symbiotic, paranoid, schizoid, and so on. It seems as though one were being described a serious psychopathological condition. Under such dire settings, communication with an infant proves impossible, hence socializing with an infant would have to be postponed till he overcomes those so-called early developmental stages and becomes a more or less tractable child. One is amazed at the extraordinary luck we humans posses having been able to make it through the hazards of evolution with such seriously handicapped offspring: mothers in the Pleistocene must have been super-mothers, especially taking into account no Early Stimulation Treatments were available at the time (J. C. Garelli 2001).
J. Bowlby studied children confined to institutions and found them deficient in emotional and personality development. Bowlby concludes that maternal deprivation causes deficiencies (1951). Even most of the inferior parents are good for the child because of the continuity[9] they offer (1954). His formal statement of the attachment theory ?The Nature of theChild's Tie to his Mother? (1957) was presented for the British Psychoanalytic Society, but was considered controversial because of its anti-psychoanalytic[10] approach. Donald Winnicott: ?It was certainly a difficult paper to appreciate without giving away everything thathas been fought for by Freud?. Anna Freud: ?Dr Bowlby is too valuable a person to get lost to psychoanalysis?. (J. C. Garelli 2001). Anna Freud seems to represent those very people that Bowlby accused for not being able to admit that children are much better off in their bad original homes than in institutions[11].

In conclusion the findings above support the view, outlined in
Angels of Antichrist and in Homo Filius Nullius, that lack of attachment is perhaps the main cause to many of these unwanted effects and that  the conventional idea of the welfare state has to be re-evaluated.  There simply seems to be a weak connection between funds and positive results but a strong connection between .funds and negative results.
[1](Ds 1996:57, p.210)
[2]  Bo Vinnerjung is a civil servant at the Swedish Social Board. He is a previous foster home controller, and his doctoral thesis Fosterbarn som vuxna (Foster Children as Grown Ups) questioned predictions made by social welfare agencies in Sweden (1996).
[3] Young males from Stockholm born 1951 (Stattin et al 1997:205).
[4] The concept ?early interventions? is here understood as a criminal policy strategy. Because LVU is not aimed as a tool for protecting the society against crime, the connection is by necessity diffuse.
[5] The social attachment/acceptance between parent and society has been less emphasized. Families that do not accept the values of the society or cannot explain them in a satisfactory way (e g immigrants) may transmit this confusion to their children who then create their own, and perhaps delinquent values (Klevius 1992, 1996).
[6] Studies of correlation between child maltreatment and juvenile delinquency show a pattern, and an ecological approach holds some promise but in Sweden this type of research is a rarity (P. Martens 1992:147).
[7] Barnbyn Skċ (The Cildren?s Village SKĊ).
[8] The team of sociologists and psychologists at Barnbyn Skċ included Sven Hessle.
[9] A continuity, however, that seems to be limited to parent and child, not trans-generationally and including kinship connections as proposed by P. Klevius (1996).
[10] It was, however, psychoanalytic in the sense that it emphasized a gendered mother.
[11] Someone might argue that although institutions may be bad, ?psychological parents? e.g. in foster homes, are better off. But apart from contradictory studies (e.g. Bohman et al 1980) it seems that most foster homes in Sweden are transformed into more profitable institutions (behandlingshem/homes for care).
by Peter Klevius
Research on self-reported sexual abuse during childhood and youth
Angels of Antichrist - a summary of the theory on how lack of attachment and the socialstate are intertwined
KLEVIUS' NEWS DESK: Sudan Arab/Islamic genocide, gang rape culture in Paris, religious fascism etc.
Reference page
Sex  segregation rom Freud to bin Ladin
Pathological Symbiosis - Sex segragation in psychoanalytic child psychiatry

What is sex segregation?