|Human Evolution/Gene Migration/Culture Timeline
by P. Klevius
|The Boiling Human Gene Couldron in the Past
A striking feature of paleoanthropology of today seems to be a development where the paleolithic Central and Northern Asia (south of ice-maximum) and South East Asia have become ever more interesting for theorists dealing with the question of human evolution/migration. In its extreme positioning it could even challenge the Out-of-Africa (OA) interpretation, simply because we are not really sure about what we mean with "modern". The New Hypothesis on Prehistoric Human Gene Migration seeks to adapt known facts somewhere between the OA and the Multiregional (MR) models. Anthropology started as a science of white Europeans and is now in the hands of the perspective of the black "African" Mr. White (Herto) and other OA proponents. But if it finally ends up in the yellow Asia then all have got their shares, haven't they?
Klevius´ Timeline of Human Prehistory:
500-600 kya The world's oldest stone tools and houses found in Japan
abt 80 kya Latest expansion out of Africa according to Templeton
70-140 kya Khoisanoid ancestors split off
66 kya First out of Africa according to Feldman et al
abt 73,5 kya A sudden and severe climate disturbance possibly caused by the Toba (Sumatra) eruption may have affected the direction of human selection. An estimated population of only 2000-10.000 modern human individuals left. A cold period followed.
< 50-60 kya (?) Warming up. Pygmies in Africa (together with other bigger moderns), Small Negritos enter huge parts of Asia.
>50 kya Mongoloid traits connected to non-Mousterian /Erectus/Neandertal) cultures. Possible hybridization (Because of human's poor gene diversity and strong sense for migration, it is possible that there has been a lot of "racial gene-pockets" on the verge to speciation, which have later on been mixed with a main population repeatedly) .
(?) 50 kya M130 in southern Asia (but see South Asia, the Andamanese, and the Genetic Evidence for an “Early” Human Dispersal out of Africa).
(?) 50 kya Humans in America
abt 45 kya A shorter period of cold climate. M89 northbound?
42-45 kya (?) First HSS occupation of Australia
abt 40 kya Warming up. What seems in the fossil records as an important period for the modern human. Possibly due to some genomal changes and/or climate change. Modern humans associated with advanced tool industry appears in Central Asia and Europe.
30-50 kya (?) First modern humans back to Africa (see e.g. Hammer et al 1998).
40 kya Oldest footprint in Americas (Mexico).
37 kya ancestors of !Kung and Sandawe split
34-36 kya First "European" fossil of modern humans (Romania). Possible hybridization.
30 kya The world's earliest known grind stone tools and polished stone tools found in Japan (usually associated with neolithic periods (abt 10 kya) in other parts of the world..
>20-25 kya Full scale sinodont dentition
28-13 kya Bering land bridge (most probably >18.000 YBP).
16-18 kya On the brink of the end of the last ice age Minatogawa in Japan constitutes an important site for several reasons. Proto-Jomon, links to both SEA Negritos and Chinese mongoloid fossils, and related to the first Americans.
(?) 14-15 kya First Americans are Mongoloids from Siberia or perhaps "proto-Mongoloids" from Tibet, Baycal, Japan, Taiwan and Polynesia >25 kya (compare early human traces from Baja California, Brazil, Terra del Fuego etc.) . Make your pick according to whether they arriwed by boat or came along the Beringian route.
abt 13-16,5 kya Jomon culture in Japan produces the world's first pottery (Mideast some 8 kya and NE Central Asia possibly 12-13 kya). The Jomon people can be genetically and anatomically connected to Ainu as well as to"ordinary" Japanese.
Link to pic of 12.000 year old beautiful Japanese pottery - 4000 years before anything alike in Mideast!
2,7 kya First emperor allegedly belonging to the house of modern Japanese empresses/emperors. The chrysantenum throne is not only the longest continuing monarchy in the world but also the world's oldest famiy crest .
1,8 kya Japanese female emperor unites Japan.
1 kya The world's first real novel (Genji Monogatari by Murasaki Shikibu - a Japanese court lady).
|Discuss the "Out of Africa as "Pygmies" and back as global Mongoloids" hypothesis on
Klevius' Anthroplogy Blog
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